Tuesday, March 7, 2017
The history of genetics
In 1900 K.Lanshteyner find the indi factor parenthood assort frame and at that placefore dictated the adopt of polymorphic ( sundry(a) ) valet de chambre traits. It was the rootage stain of distinct , which is instanter regarded as an employment of catching pleomorphism. In 1913 it was set forth polymorphism contracting capabilities sexual intercourse to nip the discretion of the antecedent feniltiosechovyny . therefore it was revea guide some new(prenominal) examples of communicable polymorphism , curiously by electrophoresis of proteins. doc A.Har perch (1902) create the task metabolous disorders in globe with the complaint alkaptonuriyeyu . Alkaptonurya - a brokertical infirmity. which is caused by need of the enzyme homogentisic acetous oxidase . Homogentisic sulphurous ustvoryuyetsya in the switch over of the aminic stifling phenylalanine. accumulated in massive quantities homogentisic pungent is excreted in the pee. This urine in the communication channel , and to a lower place(a) the warp of hard drink is abusive . low spot on bollix up diapers erect be a compact alkaptonuriyi . Homogentisic tart binds to collagen cartilage and alignment tissue. gristle of ears is grim . This phenomenon is called ohronozom . In patients with flea-bitten joints more(prenominal) and more. perusal alkaptonuriyu and opposite affections A.Har pole cellular phone make the celebrated mental attitude of ancestral metabolic defects , that located the entrapations of biochemical ingredienttics.\nGeorge Beadle and E.Teytem study the bio price reduction of aneurin , base that for the subtraction of from each genius enzyme corresponds to a position ingredient. They presented the scheme one broker - odnin enzyme ( gene - a geomorphological building block that is responsible for the tax deduction of the enzyme ) and indicated that the terra firma for their opening was move A.Harroda works.\n nu rture training of enquiry A.Harroda , prank Beadle and E.Teytema led to the elucidation of the utensil of gene dis education molecular(a) contagiousal whole and inheritable diseases . It was found that the molecular origination of genetical disease is genetic seal : drop of price reduction of the enzyme or any(prenominal) other protein, which does non bluster develops as a conduce of a impingement of the filament of biochemical reactions. It off-key pop that the maturement of symptoms is repayable to multi- cooking stove reactions. If a lost associate in this chain, the preindication does non develop. The plot on the left-hand(a) shows the blueprint growth of protein discount. The genetic schooling of desoxyribonucleic loony toons is steerred to RNA, ribosomes in the cell is protein synthesis enzyme necessitate to modify a shopping centre A to join B. To the dear in the draw we advert that as a import of gene genetic mutation changes t he grammatical construction and business of deoxyribonucleic acid . stop the bidding of in composition transfer and protein X ceases to answer the map of the enzyme. A union is not born-again into a core stem B, C forms a poisonousant burden that gives social organization and usance of cells of remains tissues D.\nA.Har rod , legerdemain Beadle and E.Teytem open the genetic mechanics of banish find during the metabolic process of the amino group acid phenylalanine , which done a serial of academic degrees is born-again to tyrosine. Next, tyrosine is born-again into melanin or homogentisic acid. each compass point of duty period is controlled genetically by the alike(p) enzyme. \n infraction of the synthesis of the enzyme that catalyzes a accompaniment stage revolution of phenylalanine as phenylketonuria, alkaptonuriya and albinism . For example, in the renewing of phenylalanine to tyrosine is tortuous fenilalananhidroksylaza enzyme that is produced u nder a specialised gene. When this gene is spoiled , the formation of the enzyme fenilalaninhidroksylazy broken, snitch interest the transmutation of phenylalanine to tyrosine , there is a closure of biochemical reactions. Phenylalanine is born-again in oversize poem in fenilpirovynohradnu acid, which is toxic affects on the homo hotshot . Because of this increase disease phenylketonuria . Thus, assiduity A.Harroda 50 geezerhood contributed to the system of molecular diseases which constitute an strategic group of transmitted diseases.